Again, another sleepless night. Instead of doing nothing and wait for my body clock to act and let myself to sleep, it’s time to surf the net and search for something to write about. Checking my clock on the wall says it’s already past 4 AM and it’s not normal for me to stay awake that long. It must have been the 4 cups of coffee I drink a while ago while having a nervous breakdown because a simple plan didn’t work and I need to redo everything from the ground up… Well, I’ll tell you all about it some other time!
Let’s talk about sex baby. Not in a sensual way though but rather medically.
There are conditions in humans believe it or not that is rather amazing than amusing. Let’s name these unusual sexual conditions…
PERSISTENT GENITAL AROUSAL DISORDER (PGAD)
People with PGAD sometimes have spontaneous orgasms, which can number in the dozens each day, or they may have to self-stimulate to find relief. But this relief doesn't last long. The arousal may return within hours, minutes or even seconds, and it can last for days, weeks or months at a time.
Initially, having (or needing to have) orgasms so often might not sound like a bad thing. But for women with PGAD, it's not enjoyable -- it's debilitating, preventing them from sleeping, working or even getting through a family meal. Some women claim to have had PGAD since childhood, while for others it began during a pregnancy or post-menopause. People with the condition often feel ashamed and wait years to seek medical help.
Medical literature only recognized PGAD within the last decade, and doctors are unsure of its cause. It may be due to malfunctioning or damaged sensory nerves. Some patients have been successfully treated with medication such as antidepressants or Chantix (initially used to curb nicotine addiction). Others try to just live with it, thankful that they at least have a name for their mysterious disorder.
Typically, doctors use the term PGAD to describe these symptoms in women, while priapism is used to describe similar symptoms in men. Not all researchers agree with this distinction, especially since women can also experience priapism. Unlike PGAD, medical science has long recognized priapism as a disorder.
Priapism can happen spontaneously, but it can also be caused by some medications, diseases or conditions. It's a potential side effect of medications used to treat erectile dysfunction, as well as some antidepressants and recreational drugs like cocaine. Men with sickle-cell anemia often develop priapism -- it occurs in about 40 percent of males with the disease. Finally, some cancers and injuries to the scrotum or penis can cause priapism.
Given the large amount of blood trapped in the genitals, priapism in males is a medical emergency. It can cause vessel damage, scarring, a loss of function or even gangrene if left untreated. The earlier people seek attention, the better their chances of a full recovery. An injection of decongestant medications at a doctor's office or hospital can usually get the blood flowing out again. If the patient has had an erection for longer than four hours, he may need a surgical shunt to redirect blood flow or have the blood removed from the penis with a needle.
While priapism isn't an emergency in women, it's still very painful. Treatments include ice packs and anti-inflammatory medication, which usually relieves the tenderness and swelling.
Priapism is named for the Greek god Priapus, known for his disproportionately large penis and permanent erection. He was cursed in his mother Aphrodite's womb by Hera, who was jealous of Aphrodite's beauty and did not want her son to inherit it. Priapus is considered a fertility god and particularly a protector of livestock and crops.
People with hypersexuality often engage in risky sexual behaviors, like sex with prostitutes and unprotected sex with numerous strangers, which can put them at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Those who are in monogamous relationships may not be able to be faithful to their partners. In extreme cases, hypersexual people may be sexually abusive to others. As with many other sexual conditions, people who are hypersexual don't always seek help. They may not view their impulses or behavior as problematic, instead seeing their sexual prowess as a source of pride.
Hypersexuality can also occur in people with other disorders. People with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder sometimes experience hypersexuality as part of their mania. Patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or traumatic brain injuries sometimes experience it as well. Some medications may even cause hypersexuality, such as the drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease.
Treatment for hypersexuality varies depending on whether it's tied to another disorder. Mood-stabilizing drugs like lithium can lower sex drives overall, and drugs that reduce testosterone levels have been helpful for some patients. Talk therapy can also help people recognize their behavior and work to curb their impulses.
In the past, women with extremely high sex drives were said to have nymphomania, and in men the condition was called satyriasis. While some doctors still use these terms, today the preferred term is hypersexuality.
Sexsomnia is a non-rapid-eye-moment (REM) parasomnia, a sleep disorder that occurs in the periods between deep sleep and wakefulness. Other disorders in this category include sleepwalking, sleep eating, sleep talking, night terrors and teeth grinding. People with sexsomnia typically have one or more of these other parasomnias as well.
While people can simply develop the disorder, factors that disrupt sleep, such as stress, sleep deprivation, apnea, or drug and alcohol use, can also trigger it. Sexsomniacs typically feel ashamed and embarrassed by their behavior, and it can damage their relationships. But the stakes can be even higher. Several men have been charged with rape after episodes of sexsomnia, often with an official diagnosis leading to acquittal. A case in Toronto in 2005 marked the first time that many people had heard of sexsomnia.
Treating sexsomnia can be as simple as treating the underlying cause. For example, use of a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine to treat sleep apnea has also reduced or eliminated sexsomniac behaviors in people with both conditions. Other sexsomniacs have been successfully treated with Klonopin (clonazepam), an anti-anxiety drug that has also been used to treat other parasomnias.
People who are asexual can have romantic relationships and may get married. They often describe their sexual orientation in terms of the people they are attracted to emotionally rather than physically. Asexuals' attitudes towards sex may also range from complete repulsion to willing participation for the benefit of another person. Some asexuals say that they masturbate but consider it a part of their bodily functions, not part of their sexuality.
Studying asexuality in the past has been challenging, especially since many sex researchers haven't included it as an option in surveys about sexual orientation and practices. In recent years, however, asexuals have become more outspoken, formed communities and sought to educate others about asexuality.
Some credit Canadian David Jay with starting the movement to accept asexuality when he formed the Asexual Visibility and Education Network. Asexuals have also marched in gay pride parades, and there are dating websites for asexuals seeking to form close platonic relationships.
The controversy is whether some paraphilias should really be classified as mental disorders. For example, some argue that a paraphilia involving consenting adults that doesn't cause distress to the paraphiliac or other people isn't really a mental disorder. Transvestic fetishism, in which a man is sexually aroused by wearing women's clothing, is often cited as an example.
Researchers aren't sure what causes paraphilias; they may stem from behaviors or associations made early in life. Many people with paraphilias don't get any kind of help with their condition until it's discovered by other people. Along with behavioral and cognitive therapy, counseling has helped some people stop acting on their paraphilias, and so have medications such as Ritalin. Generally, though, paraphilias are very difficult to treat.
In addition to the idea of removing paraphilias that don't cause harm from the DSM, there are also arguments for removing all paraphilias, even those that are illegal. The idea is that doing so would prevent people with these paraphilias, which include pedophilia, exhibitionism and voyeurism, from claiming mental illness as a criminal defense.
SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES
Sex chromosome abnormalities may be detected during pregnancy via chorionic villi sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. Depending on the abnormality, some of these pregnancies may result in miscarriage or stillbirths. Girls born with Turner syndrome have distinctive physical characteristics, but other abnormalities must be diagnosed via genetic testing. Treatment of these abnormalities may include estrogen or testosterone replacement therapy, growth hormone therapy, surgery to correct physical defects, and intervention to assist with behavioral and learning difficulties.
Sex chromosome abnormalities all stem from an incorrect number of X or Y chromosomes.
Here are some examples:
About 1 in 1,000 males is born with an extra Y chromosome, known as Klinefelter's syndrome.
About 1 in 85,000 males has additional X chromosomes. These syndromes include XXXY syndrome, XX male syndrome and XXYY syndrome.
Women may have only one X (Turner Syndrome) or up to five of them.
Some intersexed people are known as true gonadal intersexed. They might be genetically male (XY) or female (XX) but have one ovary and one testicle or a single gonad with both testicular and ovarian tissue in it. Externally, these people might have clearly male genitalia, clearly female genitalia or ambiguous genitalia. The cause of this type of intersex is unknown.
XY intersex describes a person who has male chromosomes but genitalia that is atypical, ambiguous or female. Testes may be present, missing or abnormal. The most common cause of XY intersex is a problem with processing male hormones, known as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS).
A person who is XX intersexed usually has the internal genitalia of a female, but the external genitalia appears to be male. She may have a large, penis-like clitoris and fused labia. Most people with this condition have congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder in which the adrenal gland doesn't produce cortisol or aldosterone, resulting in higher levels of the male hormone androgen. People with this condition may have been exposed to high levels of male hormones while in the womb or may be deficient in aromatase, an enzyme that converts male hormones to female hormones. XX children with the latter may start to take on more male characteristics at puberty.
In the past, parents with intersexed children were counseled by doctors to choose a gender, get surgery as soon as possible to make their child's genitalia look "normal," and keep the condition a secret (even from the child himself). However, this model contributed to psychological and physical harm. Today, the Intersex Society of North America advocates raising an intersexed child in the gender that he is most likely to feel as an adult based on his particular condition, performing only surgeries necessary to his health and putting off genital surgeries until the child is mature enough to make that decision on his own.
Some of the conditions that cause micropenis are the same as those that cause XY intersex, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). However, men with micropenises generally don't have genital ambiguity. Micropenis can also be caused by other genetic problems such as growth-hormone deficiency. If the condition is detected in childhood, hormone therapy can lead to some growth. However, it's unlikely that the penis will ever reach average size. Medications and supplements meant to enlarge the penis usually don't do so permanently, but some men have had success with surgical enlargement.
Micropenis can cause both social and psychological problems in men. Men may also have difficulty having sexual intercourse. In the 1960s and 1970s, some doctors advocated reassigning the gender of boys with micropenis to girls, with the belief was that gender identity is learned. Some researchers still advocate raising these boys as girls, but men who underwent reassignment as children have since spoken out against it.
David Reimer wasn't born with micropenis, but an accident during circumcision left him with almost no penis. On the advice of noted psychologist and sexologist Dr. John Money, Reimer's parents agreed that he should have surgery and be raised as a girl. Reimer was raised as Brenda but never thought of himself as female. Reimer learned the truth about himself at age 14 and chose to live as a male from then on. As an adult, he married and co-wrote a book about his experiences. Reimer had a troubled childhood and a history of depression, and he committed suicide in 2004. Many use his story to try to discourage doctors from surgically reassigning boys with micropenis.
SUPERNUMERARY SEX ORGANS
While some people have missing or atypical sex organs, others have more than what's considered normal: extra, or supernumerary, sex organs. Males born with a condition known as diphallia or penile duplication have two penises. This condition is extremely rare; less than 100 have been reported in medical literature. It is thought to occur due to a problem during the stage of fetal development when the rectum and penis are forming. Often, one penis is smaller than the other. Men with diphallia may urinate out of one or both penises, and may or may not be able to have sexual intercourse with both. They typically have defects in the kidneys, spine, colon, anus or rectum. Diphallic men may also be sterile. In at least one case, a man with diphallia asked to have one penis removed.
Women who are born with an additional uterus, known as uterus didelphys, are more common. This occurs in about 1 in 1,000 women, who may also have two cervixes and two vaginas. This happens when the mullerian ducts, two tubes that eventually fuse into a single uterus in female embryos, remain separate during gestation. Often, women don't know they have two uteruses and have normal periods and pregnancies. Some women have symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, unexplained pelvic pain, infertility or miscarriages. The condition is confirmed via ultrasound or MRI.
Rarely, women with uterus didelphys have had surgery to create a single, larger uterus. Women with this condition who do become pregnant are considered high risk.
Women with more than one uterus typically become pregnant only in one, but there have been cases of women becoming pregnant in both. In 2006, a British woman with uterus didelphys successfully gave birth to triplets -- twins that she carried in one uterus and a single baby that she carried in the other. To learn more about how the body can support pregnancies in more than one uterus.
OMG, what can I say, this is quite a mouthful ;-) Yet, it's worth to read right?